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The EPC is a unique number that is use to identify a specific item in the supply chain. The EPC is store in a RFID tag, which combines a silicon chip and an antenna. One the EPC is retrieve from the tag ,​ it can be associate whit the data help in a secured or a data of its production. Much a global trade item numbers (GTIN) on the barcode or vehicle identification number (VIN), the EPC is the key that contain the information use within the EPC global network. An EPC tag does not carry personally identifiable information.

Several major retailers and product manufactures are testing EPC technology as a way to improve supply chain management .Similar to the VIN on a car, an EPC is away to uniquely identify a pallet, case, or individual product. It is the next generation of the barcode , which needs "line of sight "to be read, EPC tags use radio waves to read product information faster and more efficiency.